Russia has combat-tested more than 200 new advanced weapons systems in Syria since September 2015. Weapons deployed include long-range air- and sea-based Kalibr and Kh-101 cruise missiles. Russia’s advanced weaponry will be demonstrated for the first time at Moscow’s Red Square military parade on May 9.
The Russian Navy Kalibr-PL or Kalibr-NK, also known as SS-N-30, is a long-range cruise developed as part of the Kalibr ship-borne missile system. This weapon is intended to hit targets with pinpoint accuracy at ranges of up to 2,500 kilometers, equipped with a conventional warhead and flying at altitudes of 50 to 150 meters from the ground. The Kalibr-NK cruise missile was combat-tested in October 2015, when four Russian ships launched 26 rockets against targets in Syria from the Caspian Sea, traveling 1,500km. Western intelligence was unaware of the existence of the Kalibr-NK missile at that time.
The Kh-101 and Kh-102 are advanced stealthy cruise missiles deployed by Russian strategic bombers such as Tu-160 Blackjack and Tu-95 Bear. Crews from both bomber types have repeatedly used the Kh-101 against so-called Islamic State (IS) targets in the Syrian provinces of Deir al-Zour and Idlib.