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Kristen R Ghodsee/Mitchell Orenstein

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Revolutions for whom?

Published On: November 6, 2019 01:24 AM NPT By: Kristen R Ghodsee/Mitchell Orenstein

PHILADELPHIA – “No one will be worse off than before, but it will be much better for many,” German Chancellor Helmut Kohl assured East Germans after the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. His words helped fuel rapid political and economic changes throughout post-communist Europe. Thirty years later, it’s worth asking how well Kohl and other Western leaders kept this promise.