Border, boundary, or territorial disputes arise from the claim and counterclaim over land, freshwater, minerals, etc by the bordering countries. They often erupt from encroachment, geopolitical rivalry, locational confusion among others. There are numerous boundary conflicts across the globe. In 2014, there were more than 150 notable border disputes across the world (ranging from Africa, Asia, America, Pacific, and Europe to even Antarctica) and this figure is even increasing now. Some of the most prominent border disputes are between Russia-Ukraine (Crimea), India-Pakistan (Kashmir), and Israel-Palestine. According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica East China Sea dispute between Japan and China for the control of energy-rich Senkaku (Diaoyu) Islands is one of the eight most intense border disputes. Many border disputes are unsettled for decades some of them are settled by mutual agreements or by the Internal Court of Justice of the UN.